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3D medical image analysis application

 4DQCT Analysis 
Measure the bone quality in changes over time using clinical CT images.
(ex. bone remodeling, microstructure and mineralization degree)

Bone morphpmety measurement

Trabecular bone measurement



By qualifying bone quality in changes over time,
to examine the medication effect of osteoporosis.

-Bone volume fraction:(BV/TV (%))
-Bone surface fraction:(BS/BV(mm))
-Structure model index:(SMI)
-Trabecular dimension
-Trabecular number:(Tb.N(1/mm))
-Connectivity density:(Conn.D(1/mm3))
-Star volume:(V*tr, V*m.space (mm3))
-DA:Degree of anisotropy

TMD Human L3 by μCT

Cortical bone measurement


-Cortical area:(Ct. Ar (mm2))
-Cortical thickness:(Ct. Th (mm))
-Cortical porosity:(Ct.Po(%))
-Moment of inertia

Bone mineral density

Scan the phantom in which the TMD (mg/cm3) value is already known under the same conditions as for bone.
Then create the TMD image to measure the bone density.
  -Tissue mineral density
-TMD SD(mg/cm3)
-TMD distribution
-Bone mineral content
(BMC (mg))
bone mineral density
(vBMD (mg/cm3))

Bone strengh(optional)

Shear stress:Human L3 by MDCT

Measure the fracture load by giving the Young’s
modulus based on its bone mineral density.
  -Principal stress (MPa)
-Principal strain (%)
-Shear stress (MPa)
-Shear strain (%)
-Fracture load (N)
-Young’s modulus of the
bone structure

Improvement of L3 connectivity by medication



(1) Align the vertebra images of before and after medication.
(2) Measure the V*tr value on each point of trabecular and      cortical bones.
     V*tr represent the bone connectivity.

Result by medication:V*tr of trabecular bone improved by 35 %, but V*tr of cortical bone didn’t change.

Trabecular bone V*tr is improved by medication
Trabecular star volume(V*tr )


 Stress Analysis 
3 point bending test, compression test, tensile test, twist test

Performs stress analysis on bone using 3D bone model reconstructed with TRI/3D software.
You can perform simulations of fracture progress under forced displacement, by giving
respective young’s modulus, poisson’s ratio for cancellous and cortical bone.

Large-scale Data Analysis Solver in a 64bit workstation

Analyzing a whole real bone model mechanical dependency relations between the regions. In an easy-to-use operation, you can make a 3D image model, perform solver execution and evaluate the analysis result.
Stress analysis for a whole rat femur with cancellous bone is possible.

Fracture simulation results correlate with compression test Compression test



Shear stress Analysis Correlation between MDCTmodel and μCT model




The shear stress analysis result using MDCT image model correlates with the μCT image model analysis.Stress distribution corresponds with each other.




 Rheumatoid Analysis 

Fine structure of eroded bone

Diseased bone

It extracts and measures fine structure of eroded bone surface of rheumatism, hyperostosis and diseased part of bone. It measures quantitative indexes, including
surface area, volume, and their distribution.

It extracts low density diseased bone or newly formed bone.

Measurement of 3D Bone Thickness

It measures the thickness of cortical bone directly and
estimates thickness distribution.(Optional)


-Joint volume
-Surface area of joint
-Volume of eroded surface
-Eroded surface area
-Diseased bone volume
-Surface area of diseased bone

-Thickness of articular cortical bone
-Distribution for thickness of articular cortical bone


 Bone Resorption Formation Measurement software 

By automatically aligning the 3D image, to measure the changes of bone over time between before and after medication.

Align the before and after medication image


The volume of bone resorption, formation can be measured. Calculate the changes of bone over time.

 In vivo micro-CT Image 4D VIEW Viewer 
Measure the changes of bone over time.

        Rat sham tibia growth

      Rheumatoid Bone Measurement

       Bone fine structure measurement related bone quality
It extracts and measures fine structure of bone eroded surface of rheumatism, hyperostosis, and diseased part of bone. It measures quantitative indexs including surface area, volume, and distribution of these.

Rat tarsal, medicated after development of adjuvant arthritis.
The red color indicates eroded surface of bone.
extracted object
Image of separated bone
4 color-coded image for Cap,Ev,Es,Tissue

   Image of separated bone  
Rheumatoid Bone Measurement
Measuring an Eroded Surface

t extracts remain bone, repair bone, ErodedSurface and for each label, measure volume and surface area, display the image, and the depth of ErodedVolume.
Measuring the Callus
It extracts remain bone, repair bone, callus, and proprietary volume of callus for each label, and measure those volumes. Using BMD image allows program to convert BMD value into threshold while extracting the callus, and then measure the bone mineral density (BMD) of bone and callus.
Measuring the Thickness of Cortical bone
It directly measures the thickness of cortical bone and finds out its distribution.

      Volume Spacing Alignment and
Difference Measurement
       Based on section views, align a base image to a work image, the result is 3D displayed. The methods are either Alignment of selecting marked points or Detailed Auto Alignment. After alignment, the measurement results of increase or decreased part as mean density and volume or so on, can be ouput. In addition, it can output the volume of all the spaces and measure the volume ratio of increasing or decreasing parts.

Red: before   Green : after

Changes over time using a same area of interest

BMD (mg/cm3) Bone Volume(mm3)

   Before After    Before  After 

Auto Alignment
Choosing ‘Base’ or ‘Work’ at ‘Volume Select Button’, click a point which you would like to assign it as a marked point on the screen. A cross mark and a number will be displayed on the screen(Base is read, work is yellow), the number is added on the list of marked points.

              Bone Mineral Density Measurement for micro-CT

              Since it can seperate bone marrow, trabecular bone, and cortical bone using high resolution micro-CT images, BMD of real trabecular bone, which is excluded bone marrow, and cortical bone can be measured. BMD is expressed as 3D images in pseud colors. The distribution of bone density on each part can be seen easily.

BMD Image
               Small   BMD Scale   Large

Phantom: for adjusting micro-CT. Building 7 kinds of 6mm x H1mm phantoms as a circular cylinder. 800mg/cm3 〜200mg/cm3 from outer part of the case.

Main Features
Drawing Analytical Curve
Drawing analytical curve of CT and BMD values by using phantom which BMD is already known.

PhantomTrabecular bone, and cortical bone using high resolution
★ Extraction of BMD measurement regions. Measurement regions can be separated by pseudo colors.

Measuring items

Measuring BMD value & Bone mineral amount on each region

Bone Density [mg/cm3] : Bone Density of label [mg/cm3]
Volume [cm3] : Total Volume of label [cm3]
Bone Mineral [mg] : Bone Mineral Amount of label [mg]
Bone Density Min : Minimum Bone Density of label
Bone Density Max : Maximum Bone Density of label
Standard Deviation : Standard Deviation of Bone Density

    3D Trabecular Bone Structure Analysis

    Directly analyze and quantifies 3D structure of trabecular bone based on sectional images of bone obtained by a micro X-rays CT.

Main features
Trabecular bone network structure analysis
Extract the skeletal line of the trabecular structure of cancellous bone, to measure the trabecular structure.
Trabecular structure and anisotropy analyses
Measure directly the width of bone in all 3D direction to calculate the direction of trabecular bone growth, and the direction dependency of load.
Cortical bone analysis, width of cortical bone, and lumen volume etc.
Separation of cancellous and cortical bone

Separates and extracts the bone tissue by three-dimensional image processing. Regions that you cannot automatically separate can be seperated by means of 3D interpolation method.
System requirements
OS : WindowsXP/2000
Memory : 2GB or more
CPU : Pentium4 or higher

      Stress Analysis

     By using the whole figure of living body for 3D reconstructing, stress analysis and simulation of living body movement become possible. The figure is an analysis result of the compression stress caused by two direction load to the trabecular bone. The bright spots indicate the concentration of the stress. An analytical result can be expressed by a 3D movie that enables you to figure out the 3D movement intuitively, which is not easily grasped by the value and graph.

Main features

Volume size : 100x100x100 or more
Automatic voxel mesh generation

Main purposes
Three points bending test
Compression test
Tensile test
Twist test

Output Items
s1 Length of stress tensor quadric principal axis
s2 Length of stress tensor quadric second axis
s3 Length of stress tensor quadric minor axis
toct Shear stress
D Element displacement absolute value
Node displacement, rotation angle, node reactive force, contra-movement, element stress (six components), element strain(six components)


       Serial Section Reconstruction

      Reconstruct 3D natural-colored internal organs, tissues, cells and blood vessels from serial sections of specimen for naked eye or by a microscopy or TEM.

Main features
Align serial sections which were not aligned when created.
Make cross cut images axially to the way where the tissue expands along.
When automatic extraction is difficult, extract a tissue using outline interpolation by tracing outline in every several pieces.
Cut out only an extracted tissue from original images.

Various display of 3D image

Natural-colored 3D display with original color.
Mean Intensity projection display
3D display of tissue outline.

Real-time cutting display of a tissue from arbitary direction.
Rotation, cuttting and section movie display.

Input Images
File format : BMP, JPG, TIF
File Name : Text followed by consecutive triple digit number.
File size : A series of section images with the same size (X,Y)
The number of files: No limit

      Cerebral Cortex Measurement by MRI image

    Extract the cerebral cortex from MRI images and measure the width of gray matter. Qantify three dimensionally the volume, surface area and the average width of white and gray matter, at a specified part of a brain.

Various extraction and image processing functions

Automatically extract object area such as white and gray matter and eliminate noises by various 3D filtering functions.
Extract and separate an object by binary image processing
Select particles using 3D image processing functions
Extract specific objects and display them in different colors by editing original images using mask functions.

Various display of 3D image
Tranlucent display in the depth direction   Projective display using mean intensity Projective display using maximum intensity
Display 3D composite image of cerebral cortex and white and gray matter using channels up to 6
3D images having gray matter width with pseudo-color to figure out thickness distribution in a brain at a glance

              High-speed 4D Viewer

               Visualize 4D image at a high speed from time series volume images by a CLSM, Suitable for analysis of growth of cultured cell and behavior of biomolecule in a cell analysis.
System requirements
OS : WindowsXP/2000
Memory : 2GB or more
CPU : Pentium4 or higher

Main features
List view and movie of time series of 3D images.
Observe time series movie with a rotating 3D object.
Observe tiime series movie with a 3D object being cut in an arbitrary direction.
Display volume images - Simultanous display channels up to 6. Cross section display using x, y, z-directions. Cross section image cut by free line.

Main measurement items
Time series variation of 3D particle volume.
Time series variation of 3D particle intensity.
Time series variation of intensity at the specified point.

High-speed 3D Analysis

               Create 3D data from section image files by a CT, MRI, or CLSM, to perform the following functions at high-speed. Various 3D view displays and movies, cross section display, 3D measurements.

Main features
Handle multi-channel data.
Co-localization function by calculating among channels.
Particle extraction by 3D image processing.
Combining several volume data. Tranlucent display.
Measure the 3D features of an object. Voxel density distribution histogram..
Measure length on the surface of an extracted object.


System requirements
OS : WindowsXP/2000
Memory : 1GB (2GB recommended)
CPU : Pentium4 or higher

3D Reconstruction Software of tissue section image

   This system reconstructs 3D structure objects from preparation serial section images. Not only auto extracting outline function, with manual tracing function of various operational function, it really works well when it is hard to extract objects with only shading or color information. It is possible to input in various cross section images as TV camera, files, digital camera and so on.

Main features
No limit of number for input section or inputting objects.
Possible to insert sections after input, add and delete data, and adjust alignment.
Possible to display a real 3D objects which is representing the actual condition, and set up color or tansmission factor.
Various 3D feature amount measuring items to quantify morphometry.

Operating Environment
OS : WindowsXP/2000
Memory: 128MB or higher
CPU : Pentium4 or higher